Entre normes collectives et initiatives individuelles. Une analyse des réseaux de transferts dans une société tupuri (extrême Nord Cameroun)
Michael Houseman


Violon, Chloé, Mathieu Thomas et Éric Garine. 2016. « Good Year, Bad Year: Changing Strategies, Changing Networks? A Two-Year Study on Seed Acquisition in Northern Cameroon. ». Ecology and Society 21 (2): 34. doi:10.5751/ES-08376-210234.
Coomes, Oliver T., Shawn J. McGuire, Éric Garine, Sophie Caillon, Doyle McKey, Elise Demeulenaere, Devra Jarvis, Guntra Aistara, Adeline Barnaud, Pascal Clouvel, Laure Emperaire, Sélim Louafi, Pierre Martin, François Massol, Marco Pautasso, Chloé Violon et Jean Wencélius. 2015. « Farmer Seed Networks Make a Limited Contribution to Agriculture? Four Common Misconceptions. ». Food Policy 56: 41-50. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.07.008.
Garine, Eric, Vanesse Labeyrie, Chloé Violon, Jean Wencélius, Christian Leclerc et Christine Raimond. 2018. « Which Scale to Understand Seed Fluxes in Small-Scale Farming Societies? Snapshots of Sorghum from Africa. ». In The Commons, Plant Breeding and Agricultural Research: Challenges for Food Security and Agrobiodiversity, Fabien Girard et Christine Frison (dir.) . London: Routledge.
Garine, Igor de, Chloé Violon et Jean Wencélius. 2017. « Du coq à toutes les sauces : succession temporelle et spatiale des cycles rituels masa et tupuri (Extrême-Nord du Caméoun/Tchad). ». In Rites et religions dans le bassin du lac Tchad, Émilie Guitard et E. Van Beek (dir.) . Paris: Karthala.
Thomas, Mathieu, Nicolas Verzelen, Pierre Barbillon, Oliver T. Coomes, Sophie Caillon, Doyle McKey, Marianne Elias, Eric Garine, Christine Raimond, Edmond Dounias, Devra Jarvis, Jean Wencélius, Christian Leclerc, Vanesse Labeyrie, Pham Hung Cuong, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hue, Bhuwon Sthapit, Ram Bahadur Rana, Adeline Barnaud, Chloé Violon, Luis Manuel Arias Reyes, Luis Latournerie Moreno, Paola De Santis et François Massol. 2015. « A Network-Based Method to Detect Patterns of Local Crop Biodiversity: Validation at the Species and Infra-Species Levels. ». In Advances in Ecological Research, Guy Woodward et David A. Bohan (dir.) , 53:259-320. AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO: Academic Press.
In this chapter, we develop new indicators and statistical tests to characterize patterns of crop diversity at local scales to better understand interactions between ecological and socio-cultural functions of agroecosystems. Farms, where a large number of crops (species or landraces) is grown, are known to contribute a large part of the locally available diversity of both rare and common crops but the role of farms with low diversity remains little understood: do they grow only common varieties—following a nestedness pattern typical of mutualistic networks in ecology—or do ‘crop–poor’ farmers also grow rare varieties? This question is pivotal in ongoing efforts to assess the local-scale contribution of small farms to global agrobiodiversity. We develop new network-based approaches to characterize the distribution of local crop diversity (species and infra-species) at the village level and to validate these approaches using meta-datasets from 10 countries. Our results highlight the sources of heterogeneity in crop diversity at the village level. We often identify two or more groups of farms based on their different levels of diversity. In some datasets, ‘crop–poor’ farms significantly contribute to the local crop diversity. Generally, we find that the distribution of crop diversity is more heterogeneous at the species than at the infra-species level. This analysis reveals the absence of a general pattern of crop diversity distribution, suggesting strong dependence on local agro-ecological and socio-cultural contexts. These different patterns of crop diversity distribution reflect an heterogeneity in farmers’ self-organized action in cultivating and maintaining local crop diversity, which ensures the adaptability of agroecosystems to global change.
Garine, Éric, Anne Luxereau, Jean Wencélius, Chloé Violon, Thierry Robert, Adeline Barnaud, Sophie Caillon et Christine Raimond. 2013. « De qui les variétés traditionnelles de plantes cultivées pourraient-elles être le patrimoine ? Réflexions depuis le bassin du lac Tchad. ». In Effervescence patrimoniale au Sud. Enjeux, questions, limites, Dominique Juhé-Beaulaton, Marie-Christine Cormier-Salem, Pascale de Robert, et Bernard Roussel (dir.) , 379-409. Marseille: IRD Éditions.
Violon, Chloé et Jean Wencélius. 2014. « Les échanges monétaires en zone rurale dans le Mayo-Danay (Extrême-Nord du Cameroun) : lieux, acteurs et pratiques. ». In Les échanges et la communication dans le bassin du lac Tchad: Actes du 15e colloque du réseau Méga-Tchad (Naples, 13-15 septembre), Sergio Baldi et Géraud Magrin (dir.) . Naples: Universita Degli Studi di Napoli "L’Orientale".
Violon, Chloé. 2016. « Compte-rendu de : Jan Patrick Heiss, Musa. An essay (or experiment) in the anthropology of the individual (Berlin, Dunker & Humblot, 2015). ». Méga-Tchad.