Jeune docteur
La proie, l’animal personne ou l’ennemi des hommes. Nommer, classer, penser et se nourrir d’animaux sur le haut-Maroni des Wayana (Guyane française)
Philippe Erikson
10/12/2014
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Textes

Coomes, Oliver T., Shawn J. McGuire, Éric Garine, Sophie Caillon, Doyle McKey, Elise Demeulenaere, Devra Jarvis, Guntra Aistara, Adeline Barnaud, Pascal Clouvel, Laure Emperaire, Sélim Louafi, Pierre Martin, François Massol, Marco Pautasso, Chloé Violon et Jean Wencélius. 2015. « Farmer Seed Networks Make a Limited Contribution to Agriculture? Four Common Misconceptions. ». Food Policy 56: 41-50. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.07.008. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S030691921500086X.
Pautasso, Marco, Guntra Aistara, Adeline Barnaud, Sophie Caillon, Pascal Clouvel, Oliver T. Coomes, Marc Delêtre, Elise Demeulenaere, Paola De Santis, Thomas Döring, Ludivine Eloy, Laure Emperaire, Éric Garine, Isabelle Goldringer, Devra Jarvis, Hélène I. Joly, Christian Leclerc, Selim Louafi, Pierre Martin, François Massol, Shawn McGuire, Doyle McKey, Christine Padoch, Clélia Soler, Mathieu Thomas et Sara Tramontini. 2013. « Seed Exchange Networks for Agrobiodiversity Conservation. A Review. ». Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33 (1): 151-175. doi:10.1007/s13593-012-0089-6. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13593-012-0089-6.
The circulation of seed among farmers is central to agrobiodiversity conservation and dynamics. Agrobiodiversity, the diversity of agricultural systems from genes to varieties and crop species, from farming methods to landscape composition, is part of humanity’s cultural heritage. Whereas agrobiodiver-sity conservation has received much attention from researchers and policymakers over the last decades, the methods available to study the role of seed exchange networks in preserving crop biodiversity have only recently begun to be considered. In this overview,we present key concepts,methods, and challenges to better understand seed exchange networks so as to improve the chances that traditional crop varieties (landraces) will be pre- served and used sustainably around the world. The available literature suggests that there is insufficient knowledge about the social, cultural, and methodological dimensions of environmental change, including how seed exchange networks will cope with changes in climates, socio-economic factors, and family structures that have supported seed exchange systems to date. Methods available to study the role of seed exchange networks in the preservation and adaptation of crop specific and genetic diversity range from meta-analysis to modelling, from participatory approaches to the development of bio-indicators, from genetic to biogeographical studies, from anthropological and ethnographic research to the use of network theory. We advocate a diversity of approaches, so as to foster the creation of robust and policy-relevant knowledge. Open challenges in the study of the role of seed exchange networks in biodiversity conservation include the development of methods to (i) enhance farmers’ participation to decision-making in agroecosystems, (ii) integrate ex situ and in situ approaches, (iii) achieve interdisciplinary research collaboration between social and natural scientists, and (iv) use network analysis as a conceptual framework to bridge boundaries among researchers, farmers and policy makers, as well as other stakeholders.